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Integrating statically and dynamically typed languages

Both Meijer and Bracha argue in favor of mixing dynamic and static typing, and such mixing is now supported in Microsoft's .NET framework. Much recent work has focused on integrating dynamic and static typing using the contracts of Findler and Felleisen, including the gradual types of Siek and Taha, the hybrid types of Flanagan, and the manifest contracts of Greenberg, Pierce, and Weirich. The blame calculus unifies the above approaches, permitting one to integrate several strengths of type system: dynamically typed languages, Hindley-Milner typed languages, and refinement types. We are interested to define a 'wide-spectrum' programming language which permits the programmer a range of styles, from dynamically typed (as in Scheme or Javascript) through Hindley-Milner types (as in ML or Haskell) to refinement types (as in F* and RCF) and dependent types (as in Coq or Agda).



Philip Wadler

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Andrew Gordon

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